Cochrane Review: Interventions for the interruption or reduction of the spread of respiratory viruses.

Viral epidemics or pandemics reminiscent of of influenza or extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pose a major menace.

Antiviral medication and vaccination is probably not enough to stop disaster in such an occasion.To systematically evaluate the proof of effectiveness of interventions to interrupt or scale back the spread of respiratory viruses (excluding vaccines and antiviral medication, which have been beforehand reviewed).

Search techniqueWe searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2006, situation 4); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2006); OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965); EMBASE (1990 to November 2006); and CINAHL (1982 to November 2006).

We scanned 2300 titles, excluded 2162 and retrieved the full papers of 138 trials, together with 49 papers of 51 research. The high quality of three randomised managed trials (RCTs) was poor; as had been most cluster RCTs. The observational research had been of combined high quality.

We had been solely in a position to meta-analyse case-control knowledge. We searched for any interventions to stop viral transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, limitations, private safety and hygiene).

Study design included RCTs, cohort research, case-control research, cross-over research, before-after, and time collection research.We scanned the titles, abstracts and full textual content articles utilizing a standardised kind to evaluate eligibility.

RCTs had been assessed in line with randomisation methodology, allocation era, concealment, blinding, and observe up. Non-RCTs had been assessed for the presence of potential confounders and labeled as low, medium, and excessive threat of bias.

The highest high quality cluster RCTs counsel respiratory virus spread will be prevented by hygienic measures round youthful youngsters. Additional profit from decreased transmission from youngsters to different family members is broadly supported in outcomes of different examine designs, the place the potential for confounding is larger.

The six case-control research urged that implementing limitations to transmission, isolation, and hygienic measures are efficient at containing respiratory virus epidemics.

We discovered restricted proof that the extra uncomfortable and costly N95 masks had been superior to easy surgical masks.

The incremental impact of including virucidals or antiseptics to regular handwashing to lower respiratory illness stays unsure. The lack of correct analysis of international measures reminiscent of screening at entry ports and social distancing stop agency conclusions about these measures.

Cochrane Review: Interventions for the interruption or reduction of the spread of respiratory viruses.
Cochrane Review: Interventions for the interruption or reduction of the spread of respiratory viruses.

Many easy and possibly low-cost interventions could be helpful for lowering the transmission of epidemic respiratory viruses. Routine long-term implementation of some of the measures assessed is perhaps troublesome with out the menace of a looming epidemic.

Plain language abstractInterventions to interrupt or scale back the spread of respiratory viruses Although respiratory viruses normally solely trigger minor illness, they’ll trigger epidemics.

Approximately 10% to 15% of folks worldwide contract influenza yearly, with assault charges as excessive as 50% throughout main epidemics. Global pandemic viral infections have been devastating as a result of of their vast spread. In 2003 the extreme acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic affected ˜8,000 folks, killed 780, and precipitated an infinite social and financial disaster.

A brand new avian influenza pandemic attributable to the H5N1 pressure is perhaps extra catastrophic. Single measures (notably the use of vaccines or antiviral medication) could also be inadequate to interrupt the spread.We discovered 51 research together with randomised managed trials (RCTs) and observational research with a combined threat of bias.

Respiratory virus spread is perhaps prevented by hygienic measures round youthful youngsters. These would possibly additionally scale back transmission from youngsters to different family members.

Implementing limitations to transmission, isolation, and hygienic measures could also be efficient at containing respiratory virus epidemics. There was restricted proof that (extra uncomfortable and costly) N95 masks had been superior to easy ones.

Adding virucidals or antiseptics to regular handwashing is of unsure profit. There is inadequate analysis of international measures reminiscent of screening at entry ports and social distancing.

A Modular Vaccine Platform Combining Self-Assembled Peptide Cages and Immunogenic Peptides.

Subunit vaccines use supply platforms to current minimal antigenic elements for immunization.

The advantages of such programs embody multivalency, self-adjuvanting properties, and extra particular immune responses. Previously, the design, synthesis, and characterization of self-assembling peptide cages (SAGEs) have been reported.

In these, de novo peptides are mixed to make hubs that assemble into nanoparticles when blended in aqueous resolution. Here it’s proven that SAGEs are unhazardous particles with potential as accessible artificial peptide scaffolds for the supply of immunogenic elements.

To this finish, SAGEs functionalized with the mannequin antigenic peptides tetanus toxoid632-651 and ovalbumin323-339 drive antigen-specific responses each in vitro and in vivo, eliciting each CD4+ T cell and B cell responses.

A Modular Vaccine Platform Combining Self-Assembled Peptide Cages and Immunogenic Peptides.
A Modular Vaccine Platform Combining Self-Assembled Peptide Cages and Immunogenic Peptides.

Additionally, SAGEs functionalized with the antigenic peptide hemagglutinin518-526 from the influenza virus are additionally capable of drive a CD8+ T cell response in vivo.

This work demonstrates the potential of SAGEs to behave as a modular scaffold for antigen supply, able to inducing and boosting particular and tailor-made immune responses.

Increased expression of microRNA-155-5p by alveolar kind II cells contributes to growth of deadly ARDS in H1N1 influenza A virus-infected mice.

Alveolar kind II (ATII) cells are important to lung perform and a main website of influenza A virus (IAV) replication. Effects of IAV an infection on ATII cell microRNA (miR) expression haven’t been comprehensively investigated.

Infection of C57BL/6 mice with 10,000 or 100 pfu/mouse of IAV A/WSN/33 (H1N1) considerably altered expression of 73 out of 1908 mature murine miRs in ATII cells at 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.) and 253 miRs at 6 d.p.i. miR-155-5p (miR-155) confirmed the best enhance in expression inside ATII cells at each timepoints and the magnitude of this enhance correlated with inoculum measurement and pulmonary edema severity. 

Influenza-induced lung damage was attenuated in C57BL/6-congenic miR-155-knockout mice with out affecting viral replication.

Attenuation of lung damage was depending on deletion of miR-155 from stromal cells and was recapitulated in ATII cell-specific miR-155-knockout mice.

These information recommend that ATII cell miR-155 is a possible therapeutic goal for IAV-induced ARDS.

Host Cell Mimic Polymersomes for Rapid Detection of Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus via a Viral Fusion and Cell Entry Mechanism.

Highly pathogenic avian influenzavirus (HPAIV) infections have occurred constantly and crossed the species barrier to people, resulting in fatalities.

A polymerase chain response primarily based molecular take a look at is at the moment essentially the most delicate diagnostic device for HPAIV; nevertheless, the outcomes should be analyzed in centralized prognosis methods by a skilled particular person. This requirement results in delays in quarantine and isolation.

To management the unfold of HPAIV, speedy and correct diagnostics appropriate for discipline testing are wanted, and the exams should facilitate a differential prognosis between HPAIV and low pathogenic avian influenzavirus (LPAIV), which endure cleavage particularly by trypsin- or furin-like proteases, respectively.

In this examine, a differential avian influenzavirus speedy take a look at package is developed and evaluated in vitro and utilizing medical specimens from HPAIV H5N1-infected animals.

It is demonstrated that this speedy take a look at package gives extremely delicate and particular detection of HPAIV and LPAIV and is thus a helpful discipline diagnostic device for H5N1 HPAIV outbreaks and for speedy quarantine management of the illness.

Host Cell Mimic Polymersomes for Rapid Detection of Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus via a Viral Fusion and Cell Entry Mechanism.
Host Cell Mimic Polymersomes for Rapid Detection of Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus via a Viral Fusion and Cell Entry Mechanism.

Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and SARS.

Acute decrease respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a main worldwide well being drawback, significantly in childhood, and are ranked first among the many situations contributing to the worldwide burden of illness.

About 30-50% of acute LRTIs are viral in origin; of these, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are related to the best illness burden in people.

Vaccination towards circulating human influenza strains and the use of neuraminidase inhibitor medicine have improved the choices for management of influenza, however as but there are not any profitable vaccines or antiviral medicine for use towards RSV an infection.

The current emergence of the SARS coronavirus within the human inhabitants in 2003, with an ensuing international epidemic affecting greater than 8000 people with a case fatality of about 10%, underlines the truth that respiratory viral infections of people could originate in animals, and that many alternative influenza A viruses additionally happen naturally in animal reservoirs, representing a fixed menace of zoonotic infections of people and ensuing international pandemics.

Avian influenza viruses have transmitted on to people from home poultry on a number of events within the final decade, and the present intensive burden of illness from avian influenza in South East Asia gives a actual chance for the emergence of a novel influenza virus pathogenic in people.

The Supramap project: linking pathogen genomes with geography to fight emergent infectious diseases.

Novel pathogens have the potential to grow to be vital problems with nationwide safety, public well being and financial welfare.

As demonstrated by the response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and influenza, genomic sequencing has grow to be an vital technique for diagnosing brokers of infectious illness.

Despite the worth of genomic sequences in characterizing novel pathogens, uncooked knowledge on their very own don’t present the knowledge wanted by public well being officers and researchers.

One should combine information of the genomes of pathogens with host biology and geography to perceive the etiology of epidemics. To these ends, we have now created an utility referred to as Supramap ( to put info on the unfold of pathogens and key mutations throughout time, area and varied hosts right into a geographic info system (GIS).

The Supramap project: linking pathogen genomes with geography to fight emergent infectious diseases.
The Supramap challenge: linking pathogen genomes with geography to fight emergent infectious illnesses.

To construct this utility, we created an internet service for built-in sequence alignment and phylogenetic evaluation in addition to strategies to describe the tree, mutations, and host shifts in Keyhole Markup Language (KML). We apply the appliance to 239 sequences of the polymerase primary 2 (PB2) gene of latest isolates of avian influenza (H5N1).

We map a mutation, glutamic acid to lysine at place 627 within the PB2 protein (E627Okay), in H5N1 influenza that enables for elevated replication of the virus in mammals.

We use a statistical check to assist the speculation of a correlation of E627Okay mutations with avian-mammalian host shifts however reject the speculation that lineages with E627Okay are shifting westward.

Breeding Influenza: The Political Virology of Offshore Farming.

The geographic extent, xenospecificity, and scientific course of influenza A (H5N1), the chook flu pressure, recommend the virus is a wonderful candidate for a pandemic an infection. Much consideration has been paid to the virus‘s virology, pathogenesis and unfold. In distinction, little effort has been geared toward figuring out influenza‘s social origins.

In this text, I assessment H5N1’s phylogeographic properties, together with mechanisms for its evolving virulence. The novel contribution right here is the try to combine these with the political economies of agribusiness and world finance.

Particular effort is made to clarify why H5N1 emerged in southern China in 1997. It seems the area’s reservoir of near-human-specific recombinants was subjected to a section change in alternative construction caused by China’s newly liberalized financial system. Influenza, 200 nm lengthy, appears ready to combine choice pressures imposed by human manufacturing throughout continental distances, an integration any evaluation of the virus ought to assimilate in flip.

Coronavirus as silent killer: recent advancement to pathogenesis, therapeutic strategy and future perspectives.

The current outbreak related to corona virus [CoVs] in China which is believed to be one of many huge eruptions in the direction of mankind in 2019-2020. In the current situation CoVs has been transmitted to the European and American areas by way of the travellers from huge unfold international locations like China and Japan.

The viral illness is spreading by way of the contact in any type by the contaminated individuals or sufferers and creating enormous danger of mortality. CoVs are a single positive-sense RNA virus; mutation charges are greater than DNA viruses and point out a more practical survival adaption mechanism. Human CoVs could cause frequent chilly and influenza-like sickness and quite a lot of extreme acute respiratory illness such as pneumonia.

Early in an infection, CoVs infects epithelial cells, macrophages, T-cells, dendritic cells and can also have an effect on the event and implantation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Coronavirus as silent killer: recent advancement to pathogenesis, therapeutic strategy and future perspectives.
Coronavirus as silent killer: recent advancement to pathogenesis, therapeutic strategy and future views.

It primarily produces the melanoma differentiation related to protein-5, retinoic acid inducible gene-1 and endosomal toll-like receptor 3. How CoVs impacts the operate of the immune system remains to be unclear due to lack of this information.

No Food and Drug Administration authorized remedy is offered until date. In this evaluation, we’re tried to discover the epidemiology, pathogenesis and present remedy of CoVs an infection. The promising therapeutics molecules towards CoVs and future potential have been additionally mentioned which can be useful for researchers to discover out the brand new molecules for the remedy of CoVs illness.

Epidemiology of Influenza amongst sufferers with influenza-like sickness and extreme acute respiratory sickness in Pakistan: a 10-year surveillance research 2008-17.

In Pakistan, the burden of influenza was largely unknown as no formal surveillance system was in place. In 2008, an influenza surveillance system was arrange in eight sentinel websites.

This research describes the epidemiology of influenzavirus utilizing a 10-year surveillance information from 2008-2017.Nasopharyngeal/throat swabs have been collected from sufferers with Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) together with related epidemiological data.

The samples have been examined utilizing actual time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection and characterization of influenzaviruses.A complete of 17209 samples have been examined for influenza, of which 3552 (20.6%) have been optimistic; 2151/11239 (19.1%) have been sufferers with ILI whereas 1401/5970 (23.5%) got here from sufferers with SARI. Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 was the predominant pressure with 40.6% (n=1442) adopted by influenza B (936, 26.4%). 

Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 was predominant among the many youngsters (5-14 years) and adults (15-64 years). Influenza B pressure was predominantly discovered within the aged age group (>65 years) accounting for 48% of instances in that age group adopted by youngsters (2-Four years) accounting for 37% of instances in that group.

This 10-year surveillance information offers proof of influenza exercise within the nation all year long with seasonal winter peaks. The outcomes might be used to strengthen epidemic preparedness and response plan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2.

To describe the multiplicity of ocular manifestations of COVID-19 sufferers, we report a case of pseudomembranous and hemorrhagic conjunctivitis related with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a affected person of intensive care unit (ICU).

A 63-year-old male was admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), seven days after the start of an influenza-like signs, to handle an acute respiratory syndrome related with SARS-CoV-2.

Chest scan confirmed interstitial pneumonia with “loopy paving” patterns. At day 19, ocular examination on the affected person’s mattress described petechias and tarsal hemorrhages, mucous filaments and tarsal pseudomembranous.

Conjunctival scrapings and swabs didn’t determine any micro organism or virus. To our information, we described the primary case of pseudomembranous conjunctivitis in a COVID-19 affected person.

Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2.
Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis with pseudomembranous related to SARS-CoV-2.

Considering that SARS-CoV-2 is current in tears and conjunctival secretions, exterior ocular infections might be elements of infectious spreading. Physicians ought to concentrate on late (>2 weeks) ocular issues in COVID-19 sufferers to stop sequelae.

Discovery of Widespread Host Protein Interactions with the Pre-replicated Genome of CHIKV Using VIR-CLASP.

The main interactions between incoming viral RNA genomes and host proteins are essential to an infection and immunity. Until now, the flexibility to research these occasions was missing.

We developed viral cross-linking and solid-phase purification (VIR-CLASP) to characterize the earliest interactions between viral RNA and mobile proteins. We investigated the an infection of human cells utilizing Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and influenza A virus and recognized lots of of direct RNA-protein interactions.

Here, we discover the organic influence of three protein lessons that bind CHIKV RNA inside minutes of an infection. We discover CHIKV RNA binds and hijacks the lipid-modifying enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) for pro-viral exercise.

We present that CHIKV genomes are N6-methyladenosine modified, and YTHDF1 binds and suppresses CHIKV replication.

Finally, we discover that the innate immune DNA sensor IFI16 associates with CHIKV RNA, decreasing viral replication and maturation. Our findings have direct applicability to the investigation of probably all RNA viruses.

Vaccine for melanoma?

Today we will talk about a possible vaccine to treat melanoma. How has it developed? What is it based on?
And before I tell you how and why, I want you to understand what melanoma is. Melanoma is a type of cancer that originates in melanocytes, hence its name. But what are melanocytes? They are cells that are in the epidermis (a part of the skin), and that are responsible for producing melanin. Melanin may sound more to you, since it is the pigment that gives color to our skin and protects us from the sun’s rays (more melanin, darker our skin, less we burn).

Ok, and now yes, melanoma develops from one of these cells, which begins to multiply uncontrollably and turns into a tumor that will (normally) have a mole shape on our skin. What is the biggest problem with this type of cancer? It easily metastasizes, that is, cancer cells pass into the bloodstream, distributing themselves to other organs of the body and generating other much more lethal tumors.

And now let’s get to the point, two teams of researchers: one formed by the Dana Farber Cancer Hospital in Boston and the Harvard Medical School (USA), and the other by the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz (Germany) have arrived to develop similar vaccines to treat this type of cancer.

And what does this vaccine consist of?
This vaccine is formulated based on neoantigens from the specific tumor of each patient. Here I have to make another parenthesis, yes, sorry. Cancer or tumor cells, as you already know, have undergone mutations in their genes that cause them to multiply “like crazy”. Well, these mutations cause proteins to be produced that are not manufactured by normal cell types. These proteins, exclusive to each cancer, to each patient, are called neoantigens. These neoantigens are attacked by the immune system of the patients, since they are recognized as something strange.

What if you could help the immune system recognize these neoantigens from the tumor and therefore destroy it?
Well, this is exactly what the two research groups thought, which determined which neoantigens 19 patients with melanoma had, developing a specific vaccine for each of them. The results were that in 15 of the 19 patients the cancer disappeared completely.

A summary, to see if it has become clear to us: Analyzing what the neoantigens of each tumor were, a personalized vaccine was developed with them that aroused the immune system, which would not only attack the vaccine’s neoantigens but also those of the tumor and cancer cells killing cancer.

Despite the great success of this project, all the patients who participated had previously undergone surgery in order to remove the tumor. For this reason it is not yet clear which of these patients healed due to the vaccine and which to the operation. It remains only to wait for larger-scale trials to conclude whether the vaccine is an option, and to pray that the cost of developing a personalized vaccine does not prevent many from taking advantage of the treatment, if it turns out to be effective.

And I invite you to visit my section on cancer and even some related entry if you have not finished clarifying any concept. Also, you can always write to me and comment on your opinion. THANK YOU!

The flu virus

This week I bring you a topic that is always in fashion: the flu virus. As you will have heard on TV some time ago, in most of Spain, the epidemic level of this disease is occasionally reached. Today I want you to understand perfectly what is, without a doubt, one of the most common viruses in our society…
First of all, what does epidemic mean?

An epidemic is a sudden and temporary increase in the frequency of a disease above the expected level in a geographically limited population.

And a pandemic? Does this word sound familiar to you?
It is also an increase in the frequency of a disease, with the difference that it applies to a large population in a geographically large region. An example? The pandemic caused by the influenza A virus (also called then avian influenza) that took place between 2009 and 2010. This virus traveled the world for 14 months, leaving 19,000 fatalities along the way.

But what is a virus?
Those of you who frequent my blog will know exactly what it is about, but for the newer ones: Viruses are very, very small agents that need to infect a cell to multiply. One thing must be very clear, and that is that a virus is not a living being like a bacterium, an algae or a dog. Why? Because it is not capable of performing the main vital functions: nutrition, relationship and reproduction.

And what is a virus made of? Of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) in which all the genetic information of the virus is collected and an envelope that protects it. In addition, depending on the type of virus, other additional and less important components can be added.

And now yes, the flu, that disease that we all know and that is a respiratory infection with moderate fever, general malaise, myalgia, pharyngitis and non-productive cough, is caused by viruses corresponding to the Ortomixoviridae family (families of viruses end with –viridae).

Within this family we have 5 genera, 3 of them, called Influenza A, Influenza B and Influenza C, are the causes, respectively, of influenza A, B and C. Despite the fact that we call the 3 diseases the same, only A is the real flu, and the one we’ll focus on from now on.

The influenza virus is characterized by having in its envelope two very important proteins with very rare names: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Hemagglutinin has the ability to bind to a protein on the surface of cells that it will infect. Neuraminidase, in turn, has the ability to break down sialic acid. And you will wonder, what does this acid have to do with all this fuss?

The mucus that covers the entire external surface of our respiratory system is rich in sialoproteins, that is, proteins conjugated with sialic acid. The mucus is, precisely, a defense mechanism of the organism since it agglutinates the viruses preventing its dissemination. The mission of the virus’s neuraminidase is to break this mucus to allow it to spread through as many cells as possible.

And now that we know this we can understand why we should be vaccinated every season of the flu virus. The reason is quite simple: these two virus proteins change from season to season by different mechanisms. The consequence? The virus is totally different. To give you an idea: from the first protein there are, for the moment, up to 15 variants, and from the second 9. The result? The existence of a lot of types of influenza viruses.

When you get vaccinated for this disease, you do it for one of these specific types of flu viruses. In this way, the body responds by generating specific antibodies against this virus. If the same virus infects you, your immune system will be prepared and will respond by killing it.

The problem of the influenza virus is this great variability that it presents. If the type varies from season to season, the antibodies you have generated will not be able to recognize the new virus and therefore, you will be able to get it again despite being vaccinated.

In fact, the influenza virus is assigned a specific name depending on the type of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin it has. For example, if you have type 3 hemagglutinin and type 1 neuraminidase it will be called the H3N1 influenza virus.

And to put the icing on the cake, epidemics and pandemics, which I told you about at the beginning, are associated, precisely, with the change of these proteins on the surface of the virus. A change in the virus will mean that a large part of the population does not have antibodies against it despite being vaccinated and, therefore, is not capable of generating an effective immune response.

While the slightest changes in these proteins cause epidemics, the most drastic changes cause pandemics. It is easy to understand: the rarer the change, the less likely it is that there will be people immune to it and therefore the greater the contagion.

As curiosity and to finish? The reservoir, that is, the place where this virus accumulates naturally, is birds. Through these animals the virus can spread to pigs. And it will be precisely in them that the changes in the famous two proteins will take place. From pigs, the virus will spread to humans. This explains, precisely, why the areas in which new influenza pandemics arise are areas in which the population maintains close contact with pigs.

Alcohol damages DNA and can cause cancer

Today’s post comes to confirm how truly harmful alcohol can be for our body. An article published in the journal Nature shows that a by-product of the breakdown of alcohol damages our DNA …

When we ingest any type of substance, it reaches our blood after having passed through the entire digestive tract, that is: from the mouth to the intestine. It will be here, in the intestine, where, in this case alcohol, is absorbed and passes into our blood.

The circulation will lead you, first of all, to the liver, and after having passed through it, the blood will transport it to all the organs of the body. For this reason, this organ is usually compared to a kind of “detoxifier”, which tries to eliminate or detoxify any substance that may be harmful to us.

In our case, in the liver, alcohol (which is specifically ethanol, a type of alcohol) would become another substance: Acetaldehyde, thanks to the action of an enzyme, Alcohol deihydrogenase. And in case there is someone around here who still doesn’t know what an enzyme is, I remind you: An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes a reaction, and when we talk about catalyzing we mean helping the reaction to occur, speeding up the process .

What happens then with Acetaldehyde? Well, mainly, what happens is that it is even more toxic than ethanol, and that when it is produced in the liver it will travel through the blood throughout our body. When the circulation takes the Acetaldehyde back to the liver (our circulatory system is a closed circuit) it will be when it is completely detoxified when it becomes acetic acid, thanks to the enzyme Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. This substance is no longer toxic to us as it can be used as an energy source.

So what is the problem?
Acetaldehyde, the metabolite derived from the breakdown of alcohol, is what causes DNA damage. Although we have commented that this was broken down into another substance that was no longer toxic to us. The problem is generated when so much accumulates in the body that the body is not able to eliminate everything at once. High levels of acetaldehyde in the blood are responsible for damaging the DNA of hematopoietic stem cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells are those cells that are responsible for generating the different types of blood cells: platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells … High concentrations of acetaldehyde cause breaks in your DNA. Like any other cell type, these cells have a machinery in charge of repairing these damages, although they can make mistakes that generate mutations. The accumulation of these mutations are the cause of the appearance of cancer cells and the subsequent development of a tumor.

An added problem? More than 500 million people worldwide (mainly in Asia) suffer a mutation in the gene that produces the protein Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mutation causes the enzyme to not work properly and the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood to accumulate to a greater extent. What does it mean? That these people are more likely to develop tumors because they are not able to eliminate the toxic metabolite so easily.

The conclusion? Responsible consumption of alcoholic beverages.

COVID-19 SARS-CoV2 Detection Kit

One Step RT-qPCR kit for SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19) detections

This kit is used for the detection of SARS-COV2 or COVID-19 by RT-qPCR ( Real-Time quantitative Polymerase Chaine Reaction.

This kit is used to detect the coronavirus SARS-COV2 in specimens like sputum, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal aspirates, washes or swabs and tracheal aspirates.


  • 100 reactions (20 µl rxn vol)
  • 500 reactions (20 µl rxn vol)

Kit Content:

  • RT-qPCR 2x master mix
  • Primers/probes:
  • One step RTqPCR 2x master mix contains Reverse Transcriptase
  •  Taq DNA polymerase
  • RNase inhibitor, MgCl2
  • dNTPs
  • COVID-19 positive control (PTC)


This kit is for research use only.

This Kit is compatible with all RT-PCR Instruments.

This Kit is very efficient and with improved specificity and sensitivity.


Store this kit at -20°C